WE HAVE already established by this point that, when it comes to the Hebrew Masoretic Text, the Greek Septuagint is an entire millennia its elder. But here is what we have not yet covered: so is the Targum. If you are unfamiliar with the Targum, and most probably are, it’s the Aramaic Torah. Or the Hebrew Old Testament in the written Aramaic word. Official history claims that it grew out of an oral tradition. Aramaic had become a common tongue of the ancient world, especially during the Babylonian captivity. The earliest Targums therefore date from the time just after the Babylonian Exile when Aramaic had superseded Hebrew as the spoken language of Judah, particularly among the unlearned. Therefore, a written language was finally sought out to elevate what may have already been going on in worship services.
You may recall that all sacred Scripture was destroyed during the Babylonian conquest over Judea—this according to 2 Esdras. The task was therefore given to Ezra and five other scribes, under inspiration of the Spirit of the Most-High, to pen the Tanakh all over again. From here the book of Enoch, according to scholars (I know), emerges in history. And so does the Targum.
It will do us all well to remember that the word Targum is a Hebrew word which simply means “translation.” Therefore, the original 80 books of the 1611 King James, as well as the Septuagint, and eventually the Vulgate, are themselves Targumim (plural for Targum). English Targum. Greek Targum. Latin Targum. Aramaic Targum. They’re all Targumim. The major difference here is that the second Temple era Hebrews did not use the English Targum, nor the Latin Targum, and the Greek Targum was very unlikely their most common language spoken. Aramaic was.
For various reasons, some more obvious than others, the Targum has my interest. I expect to investigate and perhaps even employ the text in future articles. We will therefore consider this an introduction for everything else still to come. At a bare minimum, the Targum expresses precisely how many early Hebrew believers in Messiah, as well as Aramaic-speaking Jews, processed the world they lived in. In its more profound implications, we are pressed to look upon the Hebrew Masoretic and discover precisely where the lying pen of the scribes are exposed. Much is scrubbed. Seeing as how the Masoretic was written, we’re told, sometime between the seventh and tenth century AD, the Aramaic Targum may closely resemble Ezra’s own copy of Torah. What furthermore astonished me about the Targum was its smooth flow of information, which more often than not gives stunning clarity to a Hebrew text which seems, more often than not, to hold back. I intend to demonstrate these observations.
My readers are likely all intimately familiar with the first six chapters of Genesis, as presented in the Hebrew Masoretic. While I recommend that everyone give the Aramaic Targum a read on their own, I am presenting some 25 differences between the two texts. In every case, the Targum gives a clearer picture. Perhaps we are all so accustomed to fuzzy eyesight. Not everyone will be pleased with what they read.
Targum 1: The Abyss
The abyss shown to us for the last time in the book of Revelation makes its appearance very early on in the Targum. Its inclusion here gives the vacant and desolate earth a pair of eyes which stares uneasily at the reader, as if to say, Something happened. You will also want to take note that the abyss is here described as being a physical feature of the created world. The ancient coordinates likely correspond with the north pole and the entrance way to hollow Earth.
וְאַרְעָא הֲוַת תַּהֲיָיא וּבַהֲיָיא צַדְיָא מִבְּנֵי נַשׁ וְרֵיקַנְיָא מִן כָּל בְּעִיר וַחֲשׁוֹכָא עַל אַפֵּי תְהוֹמָא וְרוּחַ רַחֲמִין מִן קֳדָם יְיָ מְנַתְבָא עַל אַנְפֵּי מַיָא
And the earth was vacancy and desolation, solitary of the sons of men, and void of every animal; and darkness was upon the face of the abyss, and the Spirit of mercies from before the Lord breathed upon the face of the waters.
Targum 2: Enlightenment Above
The Masoretic already clues us into the the mystery of light as being something separate from the sun and the moon. The Targum advances upon and takes hold of what others perhaps only dare to dream.
וַאֲמַר יְיָ יְהִי נְהוֹרָא לְאַנְהָרָא עִלָאָה וּמִן יַד הֲוָה נְהוֹרָא]
And Yahuah said, Let there be light and to enlighten above; and at once there was light.
Targum 3: A False Report
The Targum informs us that the sun and the moon were equal in glory until the moon recited against the sun a false report and diminished in light.
וַעֲבַד יְיָ יַת תְּרֵין נְהוֹרַיָא רַבְרְבַיָא וַהֲווֹן שָׁוִין בְּאִיקְרֵהוֹן עֶשְרִין וְחַד שָׁעִין בָּצִיר מִנְהוֹן שִׁית מְאָה וּתְרֵין שׁוּבְעִין חוֹלְקֵי שַׁעֲתָּא וּמִן בָּתַר כֵּן אִישְׁתָּעִית סִיהֲרָא עִילוֹי שִׁמְשָׁא לִישָׁן תְּלִיתָאֵי וְאִזְדְעָרַת וּמַנֵי יַת שִׁמְשָׁא דַהֲוָה נְהוֹרָא רַבָּא לְמִישְׁלַט בִּימָמָא וְיַת סִיהֲרָא דַהֲוָה נְהוֹרָא זְעֵירָא לְמִשְׁלַט בְּלֵילְיָא וְיַת כּוֹכְבַיָא
And Yahuah made two great luminaries; and they were equal in glory twenty and one years, less six hundred and two and seventy parts of an hour. And afterwards the moon recited against the sun a false report; and she was diminished, and the sun was appointed to be the greater light to rule the day; and the moon to be the inferior light to rule in the night, and the stars.
Targum 4: Tanin and Leviathan
The Masoretic already laid a case for the tannin sea serpent (hat-tan-nî-nim). The Targum raises the stakes by not only invoking leviathan, it tells us the very reason why it was created. It was “prepared for the day of consolation.” You can read more about the historical reality of sea serpents here. Charles Gould.
וּבְרָא יְיָ יַת תַּנִינַיָא רַבְרְבַיָא יַת לִוְיָתָן וּבַר זוּגֵיהּ דְמִתְעַתְּדִין לְיוֹם נֶחֱמָתָא וְיַת כָּל נַפְשָׁתָא חַיְתָא דְרִיחֲשָׁא דְאַרְחִישׁוּ מַיָא צְלִילְתָּא לִזְנֵיהוֹן זְנֵי דַכְיָין וּזְנֵי דְלָא דַכְיָין וְיַת כָּל עוֹף דְטַיֵיס בְּגַדְפִין לִזְנוֹהִי זְנֵי דַכְיָין וּזְנֵי דְלָא דַכְיָין וַחֲמָא יְיָ אֲרוּם טָב
And Yahuah created the great tanins, the lev-ya-than and his yoke-fellow which are prepared for the day of consolation, and every living animal which creepeth, and which the clear waters had swarmed forth after their kind; the kinds which are clean, and the kinds which are not clean; and every fowl which flieth with wings after their kinds, the clean and the unclean. And Yahuah beheld that it was good.
Targum 5: Reptiles
Though the Masoretic does mention waters teeming with life, it neglects to mention the various lakes from which the reptile swam forth.
וַאֲמַר יְיָ יְרַחֲשׁוּן רְקָקֵי מוֹי רְחֵישׁ נַפְשָׁא חַיְיתָא וְעוֹפָא דְטַיֵיס וּשַׁרְכַּפְתֵּיהּ עַל אַרְעָא וּשְבִיל טַיְיסֵיהּ עַל אַוִיר רָקִיעַ שְׁמַיָא
And the Lord said, Let the lakes of the waters swarm forth the reptile, the living animal, and the fowl which flieth, whose nest is upon the earth; and let the way of the bird be upon the air of the expanse of the heavens.
Targum 6: Adam Formed
If you’ve always wondered what color of skin Adam was, then here you go. The bigger revelation however is that Adam was formed from dust collected in the heavenly Temple.
וּבְרָא יְיָ אֱלהִים יַת אָדָם בִּתְּרֵין יִצְרִין וּדְבַר עַפְרָא מֵאֲתַר בֵּית מַקְדְשָׁא וּמֵאַרְבַּעַת רוּחֵי עַלְמָא וּפַתָכָא מִכָּל מֵימֵי עַלְמָא וּבַרְיֵהּ סוּמַק שְׁחִים וְחֵיוַר וְנָפַח בִּנְחוֹרוֹהִי נִשְׁמָתָא דְחַיֵי וַהֲוָת נִשְׁמָתָא בְּגוּפָא דְאָדָם לְרוּחַ מְמַלְלָא לְאַנְהָרוּת עַיְינִין וּלְמִצְתּוֹת אוּדְנִין
And Yahuah Elohim created man in two formations; and took dust from the place of the house of the sanctuary, and from the four winds of the world, and mixed from all the waters of the world, and created him red, black, and white; and breathed into his nostrils the inspiration of life, and there was in the body of Adam the inspiration of a speaking spirit, unto the illumination of the eyes and the hearing of the ears.
Targum 7: Body Parts
וּבְרָא יְיָ יַת אָדָם בִּדְיוּקְנֵיהּ בְּצַלְמָא יְיָ בְּרָא יָתֵיהּ בְּמָאתָן וְאַרְבְּעִין וּתְמַנֵי אֵיבָרִין בִּתְלַת מְאָה וְשִׁיתִּין וְחַמְשָׁא גִידִין וּקְרַם עֲלוֹי מוֹשְׁכָא וּמְלֵי יָתֵיהּ בִּסְרָא וְאִידְמָא דְכַר וְנוּקְבָא בְגַוְהוֹן בְּרָא יַתְהוֹן
And Yahuah created man in His Likeness: In the image of Yahuah He created him, with two hundred and forty and eight members, with three hundred and sixty and five nerves, and overlaid them with skin, and filled it with flesh and blood. Male and female in their bodies He created them.
Targum 8: The 13th Rib
וּרְמָא יְיָ אֱלֹהִים שִׁינְתָא עַמִיקְתָּא עֲלוֹי אָדָם וְדָמַךְ וּנְסִיב חֲדָא מֵעִלְעוֹהִי הוּא עִלָעָה תְּלִיסְרִית דְמִן סְטַר יְמִינָא וְאָחַד בְּבִשְרָא
And the Lord God threw a deep slumber upon Adam, and he slept. And He took one of his ribs, it was the thirteenth rib of the right side, and closed it up with flesh.
Targum 9: The Divine Council
Some years ago I wrote extensively about Yahuah’s divine council in heaven. My studies concluded that the conversation spoken in Genesis 1:16 was not argument for the Catholic doctrine of the Trinity or a Father and Son discussion. In fact, it was in this series where my belief in the Trinity, which derives from the Mystery religions, finally broke down. Trinity. The Targum explains precisely who Yahuah was speaking to. “The angels who ministered before Him.”
וַאֲמַר יְיָ לְמַלְאָכַיָא דִמְשַׁמְשִׁין קוֹמוֹי דְאִיתְבְּרִי בְּיוֹם תִּנְיָן לִבְרִיַית עַלְמָא נַעֲבֵיד אָדָם בְּצַלְמָנָא בִּדְיוֹקְנָנָא וְיִשְׁלְטוּן בְּכַוְורֵי יַמָא וּבְעוֹפָא דְאַוִיר שְׁמַיָא וּבִבְעִירָא וּבְכָל אַרְעָא וּבְכָל רִיחֲשָׁא דִרְחֵישׁ עֲלוֹי אַרְעָא
And Yahuah said to the angels who ministered before Him, who had been created in the second day of the creation of the world, Let us make man in Our image, in Our likeness; and let them rule over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl which are in the atmosphere of heaven, and over the cattle, and over all the earth, and over every reptile creeping upon the earth.
Their conversation continues in Genesis 3:22.
וַאֲמַר יְיָ אֱלהִים לְמַלְאָכַיָא דִי מְשַׁמְשִׁין קֳדָמוֹי הָא אָדָם הֲוָה יְחִידִי בְּאַרְעָא הֵיכְמָא דַאֲנָא יְחִידִי בִּשְׁמֵי מְרוֹמָא וַעֲתִידִין לְמֵיקוּם מִינֵהּ דְיַדְעוּן לְמַפְרְשָׁא בֵּין טַב לְבִישׁ אִלוּ נָטַר מִצְוָותָא דִפְקִידְתֵּיהּ אִית הוּא חַי וְקַיָים בְּאִילָן חַיָיא עַד לְעַלְמִין וּכְדוֹן עַד דְלָא נְטַר מַה דְפַקִידְתֵּיהּ נִגְזוֹר עֲלוֹהִי וְנִטְרְדֵיהּ מִן גִנְתָא דְעֵדֶן קֳדָם עַד לָא יִפְשׁוֹט יְדֵיהּ וְיִסַב מִן פֵּירֵי אִילַן חַיָיא דְהָא אִין אָכִיל הוּא מִנֵיהּ הֲוֵי חַי וְקַיָם עַד לְעַלְמִין
And the Yahuah said to the angels who ministered before Him, Behold, Adam is sole on the earth, as I am sole in the heavens above; and it will be that they will arise from him who will know to discern between good and evil. Had he kept the commandments which I appointed to him, he would have lived and subsisted as the tree of life for ever. But now, because he hath not kept that which I prescribed, it is decreed against him that we keep him from the garden of Eden, before he reach forth his hand and take of the tree of life: for, behold, if he eat thereof, living he will live and subsist for ever.
Targum 10: The Mist
The mysterious mist which watered the ground was never explained in the Masoretic. Here we learn that it descended via cloud from the throne of glory.
וְכָל אִילָנֵי חַקְלָא עַד כְּדוֹ לָא הֲווֹ בְּאַרְעָא וְכָל עִסְבֵּי חַקְלָא עַד כְּדוֹ לָא צָמַח אֲרוּם לָא אִמְטַר יְיָ אֱלהִים עַל אַרְעָא וְאֵינַשׁ לַיית לְמִפְלַח יַת אַדְמָתָא
And all the trees of the field were not as yet in the earth, and all the herbs of the field had not as yet germinated, because the Lord God had not made it to rain upon the earth, and man was not to cultivate the ground.
וַעֲנַן יְקָרָא הֲוָה נָחִית מִתְּחוֹת כּוּרְסֵי יְקָרָא וּמְלֵי מַיָא מִן אוֹקְיָינוֹס וְהָדָר סַלִיק מִן אַרְעָא וּמָחִית מִטְרָא וּמַשְׁקֵי יַת כָּל אַפֵּי אַדְמָתָא
But a cloud of glory descended from the throne of glory, and was filled with waters from the ocean, and afterward went up from the earth, and gave rain to come down and water all the face of the ground.
Targum 11: Edens Origins
Contrary to Eden being planted “in the East,” as the Masoretic informs us, here we are told that it was planted by the Word. The fact that it was cultivated before the creation of the world seems to infer that paradise existed elsewhere, perhaps even above the firmament.
וְאִתְנְצִיב בְּמֵימְרָא דַיְיָ אֱלהִים גִינוּנִיתָא מֵעֵדֶן לְצַדִיקַיָא קֳדָם בְּרִיַית עוֹלָם וְאַשְׁרֵי תַּמָן יַת אָדָם כַּד בַּרְיֵיהּ
And a garden from the Eden of the just was planted by the Word of Yahuah Elohim before the creation of the world, and He made there to dwell the man when He had created him.
Targum 12: A 500 Year Journey
The existence of the tree of life expands upon the thought that Eden was planted in the heavenly realm when we learn that the tree of life was so large that it’s height was a journey of five hundred years.
וְרַבֵּי יְיָ אֱלהִים מִן אַדְמָתָא כָּל אִילַן דִמְרַגֵג לְמֵיחֲמֵי וְטַב לְמֵיכָל וְאִילָן חַיָיא בִּמְצִיעוּת גִינוּנִיתָא רוּמֵיהּ מַהֲלֵךְ חֲמֵש מְאָה שְׁנִין וְאִילַן דְאָכְלֵי פֵירוֹהִי יַדְעִין בֵּין טַב לְבִישׁ
And the Lord God made to grow from the ground every tree that was desirable to behold and good to eat, and the tree of life in the midst of the garden, whose height was a journey of five hundred years, and the tree of whose fruit they who ate would distinguish between good and evil.
Targum 13: The Mount of Congregation
The concept of a mountain inhabited by divine beings reaches into practically every ancient religion and is not shy in Scripture. We see Yahuah Elohim giving the Law upon Mount Sinai, also referred to as the mountain of Elohim, and the Watchers descending upon Mount Hermon. The mountain of worship may indeed be “the sides of the north” and refer to the location we know today as the north pole.
וּדְבַר יְיָ אֱלהִים יַת אָדָם מִן טַוָר פּוּלְחָנָא אָתַר דְאִתְבַּרְיָא מִתַּמָן וְאַשְׁרֵהּ בְּגִינוּנִיתָא דְעֵדֶן לְמֶהֱוֵי פְּלַח בְּאוֹרַיְתָא וּלְמִנְטַר פִּקוּדָהָא
And the Lord God took the man from the mountain of worship, where he had been created, and made him dwell in the garden of Eden, to do service in the law, and to keep its commandments.
Targum 14: Adam and Eve were not naked
The Masoretic claims they were both naked but not ashamed. Whereas someone can easily argue that the Targum adds detail to Scripture where the Masoretic holds back, this may be the first contradiction. The Targum dresses them in purple robes.
וַהֲווֹ תַּרְוֵויהוֹן חַכִּימִין אָדָם וְאִינְתְּתֵיהּ וְלָא אַמְתִּינוּ בִּיקָרֵיהוֹן
And both of them were wise, Adam and his wife; but they were not faithful (or truthful) in their glory.
וְאִתְנַהֲרָן עֵינֵי תַּרְוֵויהוֹן וִידָעוּ אֲרוּם עַרְטִילָאִין אִינוּן דְאִיתְעַרְטְלוּ מִן לְבוּשׁ טוּפְרָא דְאִיתְבְּרִיאוּ בֵּיהּ וַהֲווֹ חַמְיַין בְּהַתַתְהוֹן וְחַטִיטוּ לְהוֹן מְטַרְפֵי תֵּנִין וַעֲבָדוּ לְהוֹן קִמוּרִין
And the eyes of both were enlightened, and they knew that they were naked, divested of the purple robe in which they had been created. And they saw the sight of their shame, and sewed to themselves the leaves of figs, and made to them cinctures.
Targum 15: The Angel of Death
While Eve is tempted by the serpent, she beholds Sammael, the angel of death, and is not afraid.
וְחָמַת אִתְּתָא יַת סַמָאֵל מַלְאָךְ מוֹתָא וּדְחִילַת וְיַדְעַת אֲרוּם טַב אִילָנָא לְמֵיכַל וַאֲרוּם אָסוּ הוּא לִנְהוֹרָא דְעַיְינִין וּמְרַגֵג אִילָנָא לְאִיסְתַּכְּלָא בֵּיהּ וּנְסִיבַת מֵאִיבֵּיהּ וַאֲכָלַת וִיהָבִית אַף לְבַּעֲלָהּ עִמָהּ וְאָכָל
And the woman beheld Sammael, the angel of death, and was afraid; yet she knew that the tree was good to eat, and that it was medicine for the enlightenment of the eyes, and desirable tree by means of which to understand. And she took of its fruit, and did eat; and she gave to her husband with her, and he did eat.
Targum 16: The Serpents Curse
וְאַיְתֵי יְיָ אֱלהִים תְּלָתֵיהוֹן לְדִינָא וַאֲמַר לְחִוְיָא אֲרוּם עָבַדְתְּ דָא לִיט אַתְּ מִכָּל בְּעִירָא וּמִכָּל חֵיוַת בְּרָא עַל מֵיעָךְ תְּהֵא מְטַיֵיל וְרַגְלָךְ יִתְקָצְּצוּן וּמִשְׁכָךְ תְּהֵי מִשְׁלַח חֲדָא לְשֵׁב שְׁנִין וַאֲרֵיסָא דְמוֹתָא בְּפֻמָךְ וְעַפְרָא תֵיכוֹל כָּל יוֹמֵי חַיָיךְ
And Yahuah Elohim brought the three unto judgment; and He said to the serpent, Because thou hast done this, cursed art thou of all the cattle, and of all the beasts of the field: upon thy belly thou shalt go, and thy feet shall be cut off, and thy skin thou shalt cast away once in seven years; and the poison of death shall be in thy mouth, and dust shalt thou eat all the days of thy life.
וּדְבָבוּ אֵישַׁוֵי בֵּינָךְ וּבֵין אִתְּתָא בֵּין זַרְעֲיַת בְנָךְ וּבֵין זַרְעֲיַת בְּנָהָא וִיהֵי כַּד יְהוֹן בְּנָהָא דְאִתָּא נַטְרִין מִצְוָתָא דְאוֹרַיְיתָא יֶהֱוְיַן מְכַוְונִין וּמַחְיָין יָתָךְ עַל רֵישָׁךְ וְכַד שַׁבְקִין מִצְוָותָא דְאוֹרַיְיתָא תֶּהֱוֵי מִתְכַוֵין וּנְכִית יַתְהוֹן בְּעִקְבֵהוֹן בְּרַם לְהוֹן יְהֵא אָסוּ וְלָךְ לָא יְהֵי אָסוּ וַעֲתִידִין אִינוּן לְמֶעֱבַד שְׁפִיוּתָא בְּעִיקְבָא בְּיוֹמֵי מַלְכָּא מְשִׁיחָא
And I will put enmity between thee and the woman, and between the seed of thy son, and the seed of her sons; and it shall be when the sons of the woman keep the commandments of the law, they will be prepared to smite thee upon thy head; but when they forsake the commandments of the law, thou wilt be ready to wound them in their heel. Nevertheless for them there shall be a medicine, but for thee there will be no medicine; and they shall make a remedy for the heel in the days of the King Meshiha.
Targum 17: Serpent Skin
The Masoretic tells us that Yahuah fashioned clothing from animal skin. The natural assumption is that He needed to kill a goat or a lamb. However, we have already seen the serpents curse to include the shedding of skin. According to the Targum, Yahuah didn’t kill anything.
וְעָבַד יְיָ אֱלהִים לְאָדָם וּלְאִינְתְּתֵיהּ לְבוּשִׁין דִיקָר מִן מְשַׁךְ חִיוְיָא דְאַשְׁלַח מִנֵיהּ עַל מְשַׁךְ בִּשְרֵיהוֹן חֲלַף שׁוֹפְרֵיהוֹן דְאִשְׁתַּלְחוּ וְאַלְבֵּישִׁינוּן
And the Lord God made to Adam and to his wife vestures of honour from the skin of the serpent, which he had cast from him, upon the skin of their flesh, instead of that adornment which had been cast away; and He clothed them.
Targum 18: Mount Moriah
Adam was a high priest. Hopefully no one is still disputing that fact. Having Adam settle down upon Mount Moriah is fascinating, given the king of Salem in Genesis 6 and the Melchizedek priesthood. Also, the first and second Temples were not on Fort Antonia, the modern day Temple Mount. Moriah was none other than the City of David. You can read more about that here. Temple Mount Hoax and Swapping Identities.
וְתַרְכֵיהּ יְיָ אֱלהִים מִגִנְתָא דְעֵדֶן וְאָזַל וְיָתִיב בְּטוּר מוֹרִיָה לְמִפְלַח יַת אַדְמָתָא דְאִתְבְּרִי מִתַּמָן
And the Lord God removed him from the garden of Eden; and he went and dwelt on Mount Moriah, to cultivate the ground from which he had been created.
Targum 19: The Law
Like Eden, the Targum details what most of us already know. So too was the Law written before the creation of the world.
וּטְרַד יַת אָדָם מִן דְאַשְׁרֵי יְקַר שְׁכִינְתֵּיהּ מַן לְקַדְמִין בֵּין תְּרֵין כְּרוּבַיָא קֳדָם עַד לָא בְּרָא עַלְמָא בְּרָא אוֹרַיְיתָא וְאַתְקִין גִינְתָא דְעֵדֶן לְצַדִיקַיָיא דִיֵיכְלוֹן וְיִתְפַּנְקוּן מִן פֵּירֵי אִילָנָא עַל דִי פְּלָחוּ בְּחַיֵיהוֹן בְּאוּלְפַן אוֹרַיְיתָא בְּעַלְמָא הָדֵין וְקַיְימוּ פִּקוּדַיָא אַתְקִין גֵיהִנָם לְרַשִׁיעַיָיא דִמְתִילָא לְחַרְבָּא שְׁנִינָא אָכְלָה מִתְּרֵין סִטְרִין אַתְקִין בְּגַווָהּ זִיקוּקוּן דִינוּר וְגוּמְרִין דְאֵשָׁתָא לְמִידַן בְּהוֹן לְרַשִׁיעַיָיא דְמָרְדוּ בְּחַיֵיהוֹן בְּאוּלְפַן אוֹרַיְיתָא טַבְתָא הוּא אוֹרַיְיתָא לְפַלְחָהּ מִן פֵּירֵי אִילַן חַיָיא דְאַתְקְנָהָא מֵימַר דַיְיָ לְנַטוֹרְהָא דִיהֵי קְיָים וּמְטַיֵיל בִּשְׁבִילֵי אָרְחָא דְחַיֵי לְעַלְמָא דְאָתֵי
And He drave out the man from thence where He had made to dwell the glory of His Shekina at the first between the two Kerubaia. Before He had created the world, He created the law; He prepared the garden of Eden for the righteous, that they might eat and delight themselves with the fruit of the tree; because they would have practiced in their lives the doctrine of the law in this world, and have maintained the commandments: (but) he prepared Gehinnam for the wicked, which is like the sharp, consuming sword of two edges; in the midst of it He hath prepared flakes of fire and burning coals for the judgment of the wicked who rebelled in their life against the doctrine of the law. To serve the law is better than (to eat of) the fruit of the tree of life, (the law) which the Word of the Lord prepared, that man in keeping it might continue, and walk in the paths of the way of life in the world to come.
Targum 20: Clean and Unclean
The Masoretic already let us in on the fact that seven pair of every clean and a single pair of every unclean animal was taken onto the ark. But here the Targum just comes right out and says it.
וַאֲמַר יְיָ תְּהַנְפֵּק גַרְגִישְׁתָּא דְאַרְעָא נַפְשַׁת בִּרְיָיתָא לִזְנֵיהּ זְנֵי דַכְיָין וּזְנֵי דְלָא דַכְיָין בְּעִירֵי וְרִחֲשֵׁי וּבַרְיַית אַרְעָא לִזְנֵיהּ וַהֲוָה כֵן
And the Lord said, Let the soil of the earth bring forth the living creature according to his kind; the kind that is clean and the kind that is unclean; cattle, and creeping thing, and the creature of the earth, according to his kind. And it was so.
וַעַבַד יְיָ יַת חֵיוַת אַרְעָא לִזְנָהּ זְנֵי דַכְיָין וּזְנֵי דְלָא דַכְיָין וְיַת בְּעִירָא לִזְנָהּ וְיַת כָּל רִחִיש אַרְעָא לִזְנָהּ זְנֵי דַכְיָין וּזְנֵי דְלָא דַכְיָין וַחֲמָא יְיָ אֲרוּם טַב
And the Lord made the beast of the earth after his kind, the clean and the unclean, and cattle after their kind, and every reptile of the earth after its kind, the clean and the unclean. And the Lord saw that it was good.
Targum 21: Unfruitful Trees
Another interesting description which gives credence to the eternal truth of Torah is the command given that fruitful trees not be burned, whereas unfruitful trees shall. There is probably no need to comment upon countless illustrations from the Prophets and Yahusha about the thistles thrown into the fire.
וַאֲמַר יְיָ הָא יְהָבִית לְכוֹן יַת כָּל עִיסְבָּא דְבִיזְרֵיהּ מִזְדְרַע דְעִילוֹי אַנְפֵּי כָּל אַרְעָא וְיַת כָּל אִילָנֵי סְרָקָא לִצְרוֹךְ בִּנְיָינָא וּלְאַסָקוּתָא וּדְבֵיהּ פֵּירֵיהּ אִלָנָא דְבִזְרֵיהּ מִזְדְרַע לְכוֹן יְהֵי לְמֵיכָל
And Yahuah said, Behold, I have given you every herb whose seed seedeth upon the face of all the earth, and every unfruitful tree for the need of building and for burning; and the tree in which is fruit seeding after its kind, to you it shall be for food.
Targum 221: Serpent Seed
Adam was not Cain’s father.
It is also important to note that most extra-Biblical texts describe both Cain and Abel being twins, except that each were born years apart and arrived with sisters. You will have to read the Targum for yourself, as it designates both Cain and Abel as twins, but not necessarily of each other.
וְאָדָם יְדַע יַת חַוָה אִיתְּתֵיהּ דַהֲוָה חֲמֵידַת לְמַלְאָכָא וְאַעֲדִיאַת וִילֵידַת יַת קַיִן וַאֲמָרַת קָנִיתִי לְגַבְרָא יַת מַלְאָכָא דַיְיָ
And Adam knew Hava his wife, who had desired the Angel; and she conceived, and bare Kain; and she said, I have acquired a man, the Angel of the Lord.
וְאוֹסִיפַת לְמֵילַד מִן בַּעֲלָהּ אָדָם יַת תְּיוּמָתֵיהּ וְיַת הֶבֶל וַהֲוָה הֶבֶל רָעֵי עָנָא וְקַיִן הֲוָה גְבַר פְּלַח בְאַרְעָא
And she added to bear from her husband Adam his twin, even Habel. And Habel was a shepherd of the flock, but Kain was a man working in the earth.
וַחֲיָא אָדָם מְאָה וּתְלָתִין שְׁנִין וְאוֹלִיד יַת שֵׁת דְדָמֵי לְאִקוּנֵיהּ וְלִדְמוּתֵיהּ אֲרוּם מִן קַדְמַת דְנָא אוֹלֵידַת חַוָה יַת קַיִן דְלָא דָמֵי לֵיהּ וְהֶבֶל אִתְקְטֵיל עַל יְדוֹי וְקַיִן אִטְרַד וְלָא אִתְיַיחְסוּ זַרְעִיתֵיהּ בְּסֵפֶר יֵיחוּס אָדָם וּבָתַר כֵּן אוֹלִיד יַת דְדָמֵי לֵיהּ וּקְרָא יַת שְׁמֵיהּ שֵׁת
And Adam lived a hundred and thirty years, and begat Sheth, who had the likeness of his image and of his similitude: for before had Hava born Kain, who was not like to him; and Habel was killed by his hand. And Kain was cast out; neither is his seed genealogized in the book of the genealogy of Adam. But afterwards there was born one like him, and he called his name Sheth.
Targum 23: Passover and Murder
Cain and Abel’s offering was on the fourteenth of Nisan. Passover.
וַהֲוָה מִסוֹף יוֹמַיָא וּבְאַרְבֵּסַר בְּנִיסָן וְאַיְיתֵי קַיִן מֵאִיבָּא דְאַרְעָא מִזְדְרַע כּוּתְנָא קָרְבַּן בִּכּוּרַיָא קֳדָם יְיָ
And it was at the end of days, on the fourteenth of Nisan, that Kain brought of the produce of the earth, the seed of cotton (or line), an oblation of first things before the Lord;
Furthermore, Abel was killed for believing in and obeying the Law of heaven. Torah.
וַאֲמַר קַיִן לְוַת הֶבֶל אָחוּהִי אִיתָא וְנִפּוּק תַּרְוֵינָן לְבָרָא וַהֲוָה כַּד נְפָקּוּ תַּרְוֵיהוֹן לְבָרָא עָנֵי קַיִן וַאֲמַר לְהֶבֶל מִסְתַּכֵּל אֲנָא דִבְּרַחֲמִין אִתְבְּרִי עַלְמָא אֲבָל לא בְּפֵירֵי עוֹבָדִין טָבִין הוּא מִדְבַּר וּמְתוּב אַפִּין אִית בְּדִינָא מִן בִּגְלַל מַה אִתְקַבֵּל קֳרְבָּנָךְ וְקָרְבָּנִי מִנִי לָא אִתְקַבֵּל בְּרַעֲוָא עָנֵי הֶבֶל וְאָמַר לְקַיִן בְּרַחֲמִין אִיתְבְּרִי עַלְמָא וּבְפֵירֵי עוֹבָדִין טָבִין הוּא מַדְבַּר וּמֵיסַב אַפִּין לֵית בְּדִינָא וְעַל דַהֲווּ פֵירֵיהּ עוּבָדַיי טָבִין מִדִידָךְ וּקְדָמִין לְדִידָךְ אִתְקַבֵּל בְּרַעֲוָא קָרְבָּנִי עָנֵי קַיִן וַאֲמַר לַהֶבֶל לֵית דִין וְלֵית דַיָין וְלֵית עֲלָם אָחְרָן וְלֵית לְמִיתַּן אֲגַר טַב לְצַדִיקַיָא וְלֵית לְמִפְרָעָא מִן רַשִׁיעַיָא עָנֵי הֶבֶל וְאָמַר לְקַיִן אִית דִין וְאִית דַיָין וְאִית עָלָם אָחְרָן וְאִית לְמִתַּן אֲגַר טַב לְצַדִיקַיָא וְאִית לְמִתְפְּרַע מִן רַשִׁיעַיָא וְעַל עֵיסַק פִּתְגָמַיָא הָאִלֵין הֲווּ מִתְנַצְיַין עַל אַנְפֵּי בָּרָא וְקָם קַיִן עַל הֶבֶל אֲחוֹהִי וְטָבַע אַבְנָא בְּמִצְחֵיהּ וְקַטְלֵיהּ
And Kain said to Habel his brother, Come, and let us two go forth into the field. And it was that when they two had gone forth into the field, Kain answered and said to Habel, I perceive that the world was created in goodness, but it is not governed (or conducted) according to the fruit of good works, for there is respect to persons in judgment; therefore it is that thy offering was accepted, and mine not accepted with good will. Habel answered and said to Kain, In goodness was the world created, and according to the fruit of good works is it governed; and there is no respect of persons in judgment; but because the fruits of my works were better than thine, my oblation, before thine, hath been accepted with good will. Kain answered and said to Habel, There is neither judgment nor Judge, nor another world; nor will good reward be given to the righteous, nor vengeance be taken of the wicked. And Habel answered and said to Kain, There is a judgment, and there is a Judge; and there is another world, and a good reward given to the righteous, and vengeance taken of the wicked. And because of these words they had contention upon the face of the field; and Kain arose against Habel his brother, and drave a stone into his forehead, and killed him.
Targum 24: Sons of Elohim
Genesis 6 in the Masoretic relies heavily upon the divine nature of the sons of Elohim who took human wives, but here we are given names.
שַׁמְחַזָאֵי וְעוּזִיאֵל הִינוּן נְפִילִין מִן שְׁמַיָא וַהֲווֹ בְּאַרְעָא בְּיוֹמַיָא הָאִינוּן וְאוּף בָּתַר כֵּן דַעֲלוּן בְּנֵי רַבְרְבַיָא לְוַת בְּנַת אֱנָשָׁא וִילִידַן לְהוֹן וְהִינוּן מִתְקְרִין גַבְרִין דִמְעַלְמָא אִינְשֵׁי שְׁמָהָן
Schamchazai and Uzziel, who fell from heaven, were on the earth in those days; and also, after the sons of the Great had gone in with the daughters of men, they bare to them: and these are they who are called men who are of the world, men of names.
Targum 25: Painted faces
The daughters of men attracted the angels by wearing make-up.
וְחָמוֹן בְּנֵי רַבְרְבַיָא יַת בְּנַת אֱנָשָׁא אֲרוּם שַׁפִּירָן הִינוּן וְכַחֲלָן וּפַקְסָן וּמְהַלְכִין בְּגִילוּי בִּשְׁרָא וְהִרְהִירוּ לִזְנוּ וּנְסִיבוּ לְהוֹן נְשִׁין מִכָּל דְאִתְרְעִיוּ
and the sons of the great saw that the daughters of men were beautiful, and painted, and curled, walking with revelation of the flesh, and with imaginations of wickedness; that they took them wives of all who pleased them.
Targum 26: Metatron
Enoch became the angel Metatron.
וַהֲווֹ כָּל יוֹמֵי חֲנוֹךְ עִם דַיְירֵי אַרְעָא תְּלַת מְאָה וְשִׁיתִּין וַחֲמֵשׁ שְׁנִין
And all the days of Hanok with the sojourners of the earth were three hundred and sixty-five years.
וּפְלַח חֲנוֹךְ בְּקוּשְׁטָא קֳדָם יְיָ וְהָא לֵיתוֹהִי עִם דַיְירֵי אַרְעָא אֲרוּם אִתְנְגִיד וְסַלִיק לִרְקִיעָא בְּמֵימַר קָדָם יְיָ וּקְרָא שְׁמֵיהּ מִיטַטְרוֹן סַפְרָא רַבָּא
And Hanok served in the truth before the Lord; and, behold, he was not with the sojourners of the earth; for he was withdrawn, and he ascended to the firmament by the Word before the Lord, and his name was called Metatron the Great Saphra.
Genesis 5: 23-24
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